guided response 18

In “Introduction: Defining `Computer,'”Preview the document Paul Ceruzzi offers an overview of computer history, drawing attention to the technological significance of electronic computing, the development of the modern computer industry, and major themes related to the history of hardware, software, and the role of national governments.

In “When Computers were Women,”Preview the document Jennifer Light examines the role of women in the development of the first electronic computer, the ENIAC (1945). This computer was developed as part of a secret program at the University of Pennsylvania during World War II.

In this response, please address the following questions:

1) According to Ceruzzi, what was a “computer” before 1945? What does the image in Figure 0.1 suggest about how complex calculations were solved before electronic computers?

2) Who was the leading sponsor of computing technology in the United States from 1945 to the mid-1960s, according to Ceruzzi? What kinds of projects were prioritized?

3) What was the ENIAC, as described by Light? How did women contribute to its development and operation? Why does Light think this history is important?

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